Sur ce doute, voy. I thank all authors for their contributions which make this book worth reading. They also include the principle of the authority of res judicata, which imposes the respect by a court of the decision made by it or another court when it is exercising its jurisdiction in order to avoid contradictory judgments and jurisprudence. Beside domestic courts, power to prosecute and try international crimes should be distributed between regions and universal mechanisms of criminal accountability. The suspension of proceedings will not yet be possible since the same power is not even given by the Malabo Protocol Annex to the AU Assembly. II I wish to thank, first and foremost, the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung for its generous support of the African Group of Experts on International Criminal Justice and, more generally, for the cause of peace and justice in Africa.

The latter principle could imply that crimes committed in one region should be tried by domestic courts of states belonging to that region or the competent regional jurisdictions before any involvement from another region or global mechanisms of criminal accountability. The quan- tity of such prosecutions is still very low. Similarly, regional criminal courts should be established in every region and widely accepted by the states concerned for the purpose of exercising jurisdiction at first instance. The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg Nuremberg Tribunal nonetheless adopted an innovative approach that has laid the foundation of the modern-day doctrine of corporate criminal liability in international criminal law. As discussed in the next section, this model might constitute the most realistic future for international criminal justice in Africa. But, the problem with this option is that it appears to be inconsistent with the very motives that have informed the creation of the AU Criminal Court.

A remedy for human rights violations?

We are delighted to offer all our distinguished readers this interesting piece of literature that addresses diverse issues of International Criminal Law as perceived and narrated by Africans as our modest contribution to the understanding and embracing of international criminal law norms and standards on the continent. This third approach is based on the regionalisation of the ICC in connection with the establishment and application of the principle of regional territoriality.

Furthermore, its international criminal law mandate at least in respect of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes at the moment, and the crime of aggression in the future will be shared with the ICC.


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Secondly, the proposed agreement on cooperation between the ICC and the AU Criminal Court could also provide for principles on mutual recognition of jurisdiction and judicial decisions. The drafters and negotiators clearly envisage that, since multiple courts will share jurisdiction, these courts may opt to negotiate among themselves on how best to handle this shared jurisdiction so that the ends of justice are met in an effective, efficient, credible and fair manner.

Competition between courts should be avoided because it can lead to an inefficiency of justice for perpetrators of international crimes. As a criminal law institution, the ICC can only target someone or something in the sense of pursuing his or her prosecution.

Pour citer un dissertattion africain sur ce point: Some African countries have adopted this derivative approach in apportioning corporate criminal liability to domestic crimes. Even after 15 years, this is likely still only the beginning of the ICC story. On the other hand, the drafters of the Malabo Protocol rejected the hierarchical model, which subordinates the AU Criminal Court to the ICC on the basis of the principle of complementarity.

Proposals to endow the Court with universal jurisdiction were firmly rejected. Ce Report xxxvii effective. Notre maison est notre maison.

Salute E Sorrisi – Specialisti in Odontoiatria

Criticism of the functioning of the ICC is one thing, but it is something very different to question the idea of the Court as an institution.

Despite these disserttaion, corporate criminal liability was later transformed in to national criminal fnquête practice. On 29 MarchSimone Gbagbo, wife of Laurent Gbagbo who is currently on trial before the ICC for crimes against humanity, was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity in a domestic court.

Similarly, should they wish to adhere to the Rome Statute they will be in breach of the Malabo Protocol.

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However, the principle of universal jurisdiction may apply to the ICC in two ways: What purpose does it serve? It also has hands which hold disesrtation tools and act in accordance with the directions from the centre.

International law, because it lacks a centralized structure, does not provide for an integrated judicial system operating an orderly division of labour among a number of tribunals, where certain aspects or components of jurisdiction as a power could be centralized or vested disdertation one of them but not the others.


It implies that a perpetrator of a crime may be prosecuted abroad irrespective of his nationality or that of the victim, or without any other connection to the prosecuting state, except his presence within its territory. My thanks go out to all members of our group and especially to those who have contributed to this book for their hard work, dedication and patience.

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For instance, such liability may result in indirect adverse consequences of innocent shareholders, loss of employment, and negative economic effects. Instead the motif of Sanchi occupies the backside of the Rupee note. First, the flahrance of complementarity pre-supposes the fragmentation of the system of international criminal justice, flaggrance the current proposal aims to integrate the latter.

In this regard, it is left to the Courts themselves, once fully constituted, to negotiate how they will work together.

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When no such prior determination is made within six months, the ICC Prosecutor may proceed with an investigation provided that the Pre-Trial Division has authorised the commencement of flagrannce investigation in respect of a crime of aggression in accordance with the procedure contained in Article 15, and the UNSC has not decided otherwise in accordance with Article This will enable the imposition of criminal liability on corporations, regardless of the fact that persons within the corporation may be subject to individual diswertation liability.

This is because the problem arises in the same terms. It is yet to be seen how the Court, once operational, will interpret this provision. This is a matter of particular arrangements within the system.

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Other notable improvements include the mode of criminal liability whereby there is an expansion from individual criminal liability to corporate criminal liability and the embracing of possible prosecutions of international crimes before domestic courts and sub-regional economic integration courts. The ICC is today somewhat more immune from accusations of bias towards Enquêtte in terms of its selection of cases.